Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is classified into five stages, ranging from very mild to complete kidney failure, depending on the extent of kidney damage. Kidney failure occurs when the kidneys’ ability to function is less than 15%, which is insufficient for a person to survive for an extended period of time on their own. According to experts such as Nephrologist in Lahore, patients can live longer lives if they receive treatment; however, there is no permanent cure for the final stage of kidney failure.
What are kidney failure stages?
Stage one kidney failure occurs when the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is normal or high (GFR > 90 mL/min).
The first stage of kidney failure is typically characterised by the absence or presence of few symptoms. The majority of the time, it is discovered by chance when an abdominal MRI or ultrasound is performed for a completely unrelated condition. This is due to the fact that the kidneys continue to function normally even when they are diseased, which means that stage one goes undetected by the patient.
The following are the signs and symptoms of stage one kidney failure: protein or blood in the urine, higher than normal levels of serum urea and creatinine, and decreased urine output. People who have hereditary kidney diseases, such as polycystic kidney disease, are more likely to experience stage one kidney failure (PKD). As previously stated, imaging techniques such as CT scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), contrast X-rays, and ultrasound abdomen are used to diagnose stage one kidney disease when there is evidence of kidney damage.
GFR of 60-89 millilitres per minute in stage one kidney failure (GFR 60-89 millilitres per minute in stage two kidney failure).
Even in the second stage of kidney failure, there are only a few symptoms to be aware of. This stage is characterised by weakness and fatigue, as well as sleep disturbances, loss of appetite, and itching. It is more common to develop urinary tract infections, abnormal urine tests, and high blood pressure during this stage of pregnancy.
This stage is similar to stage one in that the kidneys are functioning normally; however, there is a higher level of protein in the urine, as well as more physical damage to the kidneys.
With mild kidney disease (GFR 30-59 mL/min), stage three kidney failure can occur.
The third stage is divided into two sections. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the first stage 3A is between 45 and 59, whereas the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the second stage 3B is between 30 and 44. At this point, the kidney damage is causing health problems for the patient. Swelling occurs in the hands and feet, as well as back pain and abnormal urination patterns. The latter is characterised by dark orange urine, brown urine, or tea coloured urine as a symptom. Because of the presence of protein in the urine, the urine becomes foamier, and the kidneys may produce more or less urine than is normal.
After a while, the secondary complications of kidney disease become apparent, such as high blood pressure, early bone disease due to calcinuria, and anaemia due to decreased erythropoietin production. As kidney function declines, a buildup of urea in the blood occurs, resulting in a condition known as uremia (urea in the blood).
Stage four kidney failure is associated with severe kidney disease (glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 15-29 mL/min).
Symptoms of this stage include advanced kidney failure and a significant decrease in the glomerular filtration rate. Patients with stage four renal disease, who are on dialysis the majority of the time, will require a kidney transplant in the future. The patient with stage four kidney disease is at increased risk for stroke and heart disease.
When there is severe renal impairment, there is an accumulation of toxins in the blood, which results in a variety of severe symptoms. Twitching muscles, fatigue, chest and back pains, loss of appetite, decreased mental sharpness, sleep problems, swelling in the hands and feet, weakness, and less urination than usual are all symptoms of a thyroid condition.
Other complications of renal disease, such as bone disease, anaemia, and hypertension, that were present in stage three continue to exist.
End-stage kidney disease (GFR less than 15 mL/min) is defined as stage five kidney failure.
In stage five, the kidneys are only functioning at less than 15 percent of their maximum capacity. This kidney failure results in a buildup of toxins and waste, which can be life threatening if not treated promptly. It is characterised by symptoms such as nausea and vomiting, breathing difficulties, fatigue and severe weakness, headaches, little or no urine, changes in skin colour, and increased skin pigmentation. It is also associated with kidney failure. The patient is at risk for pericarditis, encephalopathy, skin manifestations, and peripheral neuropathy as a result of having a high serum urea level in end stage renal disease.
Hemodialysis or a renal transplant are required for survival in order to avoid kidney failure.
What is the best way to deal with renal disease?
When kidney disease is detected at any stage, it is necessary to schedule regular appointments with an expert nephrologist such as a Nephrologist in Islamabad. Additionally, a healthy diet should be followed by the patient in order to prevent the disease from worsening and progressing to the next stage of development. In order to slow the progression of the disease from stages 1 to 3, lifestyle modifications are required. During stages 4 and 5, the patient should consider dialysis and transplantation options.